Why Novice Programmers Can't Program (and how to fix it)


My esteemed colleague Ovid has led a small private discussion about teaching Perl to people who already know how to program, and the subject inevitably turned to the topics in my Modern Perl book. Blame me.

Like half of the people reading this, I have years of experience unsnarling and helping novices unsnarl code written without a firm grasp of programming. Again, there's nothing wrong with writing Baby Perl, but the difference in maintainability, quality, concision, and reliability between Baby Perl and grown-up Perl is striking.

These experiences tempt me to generalize that novice programmers have trouble learning three important principles: abstraction and composition, user input, and robustness.

Abstraction and Composition

Inefficient programmers tend to experiment randomly until they find a combination that seems to work.

— Steve McConnell, Code Complete

Programming—symbolic computation—is primarily the act of representing a problem in terms of the proper abstractions so as to manipulate the individual entities of the problem efficiently and correctly. I suspect that you'll struggle with even simple programming unless you have the basics of algebra correct, and something more than a + b = 10.

The first peak novices must scale is understanding the difference between a value and a name which stands for that value, and that the computer doesn't care about the name.

The second order effect of this is when a novice realizes why it's stupid to use a variable as a variable name. This is where composition comes in. You know how to manipulate scalar values. You know how to manipulate aggregates, such as arrays and hashes. What happens if you combine those principles?

Some languages do better at this than others. PHP is terrible; witness the comment section on PHP.net sometime. If genericity, abstraction, and composition are the disease, PHP.net is the rusty horse needle containing 100L of vaccine. (I know the difference between cc and L,thank you.) PHP encourages people to reach the "I can search the Internet for code to copy and paste and experiment randomly with gluesticks and glitter" stage of development, then chains them to tables making rhinestone-encrusted wallets to sell to tourists during the next dry season.

Compare that with Scheme, at least as taught in The Little Schemer where certainly it's impractical to write addition and subtraction primarily in terms of recursion, but by the end you're going to know how recursion works and how symbolic computation works and that you can define what you thought of as primitives in terms of other primitives and, by gum, you'll be a better programmer for it.

I think this is what some people mean when they say "Never trust any developer who doesn't understand C pointers", because it'd be crazy to claim that knowing how to work around the limitations of the PDP-8 memory model in 2011 is ceteris paribus all that useful for most programmers. Understanding enough of the von Neumann model in practice such that all of the convenient parts of modern programming languages are just names hung on buckets somewhere in silicon should suffice.

From there, the next hurdle to overcome is understanding genericity, whether in terms of polymorphism or type substitution. If properly explained, Perl can make sense here. When you write my $birthday = $YYYY . $MM . $DD; it doesn't matter so much that $YYYY and $MM and $DD are all numbers as it matters that they know how to stringify.

Yes, that's polymorphism.

You're welcome to explain that in terms of duck typing, if your language isn't cool enough to support better abstractions, or you could pull out Real World Haskell and begin to think about type classes.

("What about Java?" you ask? You could probably learn most of these concepts if you were properly motivated, and if you kept away from your IDE's autocomplete and copy and pasting example code you found on the Internet. If you find yourself managing large lists of JARs and trying to resolve conflicts between them, or if your best impression of genericity and polymorphism is writing big XML files to take advantage of dependency injection or at least slapping annotations on everything and hoping. That's not to say that it's impossible to write great code in Java, but you're going to need a lot of self-discipline to do it.)

Haskell and other languages with real higher-order functions (Java and Python don't count, JavaScript and Perl and Ruby do, I haven't used C#, and I don't have the heart to test PHP) can take you to the next level, where you manipulate functions as if they were data, because they are. You don't necessarily have to be able to build your own object system out of closures, but you should be able to understand the equivalence of encapsulation and abstraction and polymorphism available when you limit yourself to the primitive abstraction of apply. (Hello, CLOS! How've you been all of these years?) Certainly patterns such as Haskell monads count, because they're language-supported abstractions over the structure and execution of program components.

You don't have to master all of these techniques to move past novice status, but you should be comfortable knowing that these techniques exist and beginning to recognize and understand them when you see them.

User Input

In my conversation with Ovid, I mentioned "Handling Unicode", but I can expand this point into something more specific.

User input lies.

Sometimes it lies deliberately, as when a malicious or curious user gets the curious idea to provide bad data to see what happens. Sometimes it lies to your expectations, when a user like me has a single-word pseudonym and if you force capitalize it, you're doing it wrong. (You'd think the soi disant "world's largest encyclopedia" would bother to get spelling correct, but Wikipedia editors are apparently too busy deleting all things non-Pokémon and Star Wars Extended Universe to fix their software.)

Sometimes it lies because the world isn't solely the realm of ASCII or even Latin-1, and if you don't document your expectations and bother to find out the truth about the data you're getting or what other people expect of the data you're producing, you'll see what real line noise looks like.

I had an interesting discussion with a motivated novice a while back, when I reviewed some code and found a SQL injection attack vector in cookie-handling code. "Never trust the user," I said.

"Why would anyone do that?" he asked.

"Never trust the user," I repeated. You're not paranoid enough. Even if you think you're paranoid enough, you're probably not. In a subsequent discussion, I said "Never parse XML with simplistic regular expressions—you're expecting that that start element will always occur on a newline with a four space indent."

Unfortunately, only bitter experience can burn this lesson into the minds of some developers. Certainly several years of doing things quickly the wrong way and having to fix them later taught me better. Mostly. (I wrote my own web server without reading the HTTP RFCs, and it mostly worked. Mostly. See also "Why your CGI parameter processing code has at least five bugs and one latent DoS attack vector, and then learn how to use a library and get on to more interesting things.")


If the latter sounds like robustness, it's true. Perhaps handling input and output properly is a special case of robustness, but I separate them because you really can't trust user input.

A robust program knows what's likely to go wrong, how it can recover, when it can't, and does the right thing in those circumstances.

McConnell's flailing novices tend to be so happy they managed to find the right magic incantations to get something working that they're reluctant to rejigger their Jenga towers (American cultural imperialism warning here) for fear that everything will collapse.

Robustness doesn't mean that every program needs configuration-driven logging and a failover heartbeat monitoring system. Sometimes it's enough to throw an exception, then let the next cron invocation restart the process and pick up where it's left off. (I really like this pattern.)

Yet if you haven't thought about what's likely to happen, what's unlikely to happen, and the consequences of each, your program is probably much more fragile than it needs to be. Yes, understanding risk and consequences and error patterns takes experience, but error handling should rarely be optional. (See The Tower of Defaults.)

Software isn't magic. It's part science, in that we can make empirical statements about what we understand to be reality, test them, and reassemble them into larger frameworks of axioms. It's also part art, as we have a fantastic creative palette with which to do so. Both require knowledge and a thirst for knowledge and a desire for a depth of understanding.

When novices expand their minds and experiences to encompass all of these tools, they become all the better for it. That is what I want to encourage in any book aimed at novice developers or novices in any particular language.


Overall, I think it comes back to experience. There's very little that can impress upon a novice the importance of doing something like being bitten by the consequences of NOT doing it. This experience isn't limited to the exact problem though. The more you've had to deal with substandard coding practice problems, the more thought and consideration you can give to alternate ideas.

There really is no substitute.

Haskell and other languages with real higher-order functions (Java and Python don't count, JavaScript and Perl and Ruby do, I haven't used C#, and I don't have the heart to test PHP)

http://us.php.net/manual/en/function.create-function.php. Read it and weep (for the masses of PHP programmers).
Since 5.3.0 they've had support for true anonymous functions, but that's frighteningly recent, IMO (mid-2009, but only recently in Enterprise distros).

I would suggest a fourth principle, possibly more basic and essential than the others: The ability to break down problems into manageable pieces. If I were the dean of a school of programming, all incoming freshmen would be required to complete a formal course in problem-solving.
Not only is this a vital skill for programmers, it is extremely valuable when you move up to Team Leader, Project Manager, or (god forbid) Management.

A strong contender for the zeroeth principle! I'd assumed it's impossible to write any sort of program without some ability here, but that's clearly not true.

I think this is what some people mean when they say "Never trust any developer who doesn't understand C pointers", because it'd be crazy to claim that knowing how to work around the limitations of the PDP-8 memory model in 2011 is ceteris paribus all that useful for most programmers.

C pointers? Heck, I'd be happy if all my programmers fully understood Java references! ;)

It's inescapable that developers dealing with C pointers will realize that they're dealing with literal memory addresses. Pointers are so dangerous, it's trivial to trip up and cause a crash, and they'll have to figure that out. That's valuable real-world experience.

Part of the utility to me in having my young programmers understand C pointers is that I know their mental models of the code they're developing for me may be closer to actual reality than the models of their .Net- or Java-only contemporaries. Understanding pointers means they understand the underlying computer a lot better.

That's why C pointers are a big data point for me as to the quality of the developer; it means maybe they understand the paucity of memory in some platforms, the hazard of memory leaks, and keeping their references to memory tidy. Similarly, their understanding of the role and function of the garbage collector in virtual machines is typically more complete because there's less magic in how that system works.


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This page contains a single entry by chromatic published on September 16, 2011 9:46 AM.

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